Objectives: This study examined changes in rates of pharmacy naloxone stocking and dispensing in Indiana between 2016 and 2018 and explored supplemental variables and factors that may have affected observed differences. Methods: Researchers used data from 2 existing datasets that were collected from managing pharmacists who responded to statewide pharmacy censuses in 2016 and 2018. After identifying all cases in which a pharmacy's managing pharmacist responded in both 2016 and 2018 censuses, researchers conducted a nonparametric statistical comparison of naloxone stocking and dispensing rates in 107 Indiana pharmacies. Additional descriptive data regarding naloxone-related pharmacy policies and educational programs during those years were collected in 2019 from pharmacy corporations operating food stores or chain pharmacies in Indiana and from the Indiana Pharmacists Association. Results: Pharmacy stocking and dispensing in Indiana increased from 2016 to 2018. In 2016, 57% of pharmacies reported stocking naloxone compared with 92.5% in 2018 (P < 0.001). Similarly, 23.4% of pharmacies reported dispensing naloxone in 2016 compared with 76.6% of pharmacies in 2018 (P < 0.001). All responding pharmacy corporations and the state pharmacy association reported offering self-directed volunteer-training programs regarding naloxone since 2016. In addition, they reported that company policy and procedures regarding naloxone were put into place in response to the 2016 statewide standing order. Conclusion: Pharmacy naloxone stocking and dispensing increased in the 2 years after the statewide standing order was issued. The effect of the order itself was likely moderated or mediated by corporate responses to the law. Research examining the impact of naloxone-availability policies on pharmacy practice and patient incomes should longitudinally examine data after policy implementation and with covariates that include type of pharmacy (e.g., chain or independent), location, and opioid overdose–associated mortality rates.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (nursing)