Myristate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress requires ceramide synthases 5/6 and generation of C14-ceramide in intestinal epithelial cells

Songhwa Choi, Justin M. Snider, Nicole Olakkengil, Johana M. Lambert, Andrea K. Anderson, Jessica S. Ross-Evans, L. Ashley Cowart, Ashley J. Snider

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) have been shown to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and chronic inflammatory responses, as well as alter sphingolipid metabolism. Disruptions in ER stress and sphingolipid metabolism have also been implicated in intestinal inflammation. Therefore, to elucidate the roles of SFAs in ER stress and inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells, we examined myristate (C14:0) and palmitate (C16:0). Myristate, but not palmitate, induced ER stress signaling, including activation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) signaling. Myristate significantly increased C14-ceramide levels, whereas palmitate increased several long-chain ceramides. To define the role of ceramide synthases (CerSs) in myristate-induced ER stress, we used the pharmacologic inhibitor, fumonisin B1 (FB1), and small interfering RNA (siRNA) for CerS5 and 6, the primary isoforms that are involved in C14-ceramide generation. FB1 and siRNA for CerS5 or 6 suppressed myristate-induced C14-ceramide generation and XBP1 splicing (XBP1s). Moreover, increased XBP1s induced the downstream expression of IL-6 in a CerS5/6-dependent manner. In addition, a myristate-enriched milk fat–based diet, but not a lard-based diet, increased C14-ceramide, XBP1s, and IL-6 expression in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that myristate modulates ER stress and cytokine production in the intestinal epithelium via CerS5/6 and C14-ceramide generation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5724-5736
Number of pages13
JournalFASEB Journal
Volume32
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • ER stress
  • IL-6
  • XBP1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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