Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging

Houssine Makhlouf, Arthur F. Gmitro, Anthony A. Tanbakuchi, Josh A. Udovich, Andrew R. Rouse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


We describe the design and operation of a multispectral confocal microendoscope. This fiber-based fluorescence imaging system consists of a slit-scan confocal microscope coupled to an imaging catheter that is designed to be minimally invasive and allow for cellular level imaging in vivo. The system can operate in two imaging modes. The grayscale mode of operation provides high resolution real-time in vivo images showing the intensity of fluorescent signal from the specimen. The multispectral mode of operation uses a prism as a dispersive element to collect a full multispectral image of the fluorescence emission. The instrument can switch back and forth nearly instantaneously between the two imaging modes (less than half a second). In the current configuration, the multispectral confocal microendoscope achieves 3-μm lateral resolution and 30-μm axial resolution. The system records light from 500to750nm, and the minimum resolvable wavelength difference varies from 2.9to8.3nm over this spectral range. Grayscale and multispectral imaging results from ex-vivo human tissues and small animal tissues are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number044016
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2008


  • cellular level imaging
  • fiber-based fluorescence
  • in vivo imaging
  • multispectral confocal microendoscope

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering


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