Multisensory convergence in the mushroom bodies of ants and bees

W. Gronenberg, G. O. López-Riquelme

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


The mushroom bodies, central neuropils in the arthropod brain, are involved in learning and memory and in the control of complex behavior. In most insects, the mushroom bodies receive direct olfactory input in their calyx region. In Hymenoptera, olfactory input is layered in the calyx. In ants, several layers can be discriminated that correspond to different clusters of glomeruli in the antennal lobes, perhaps corresponding to different classes of odors. Only in Hymenoptera, the mushroom body calyx also receives direct visual input from the optic lobes. In bees, six calycal layers receive input from different classes of visual interneurons, probably representing different parts of the visual field and different visual properties. Taken together, the mushroom bodies receive distinct multisensory information in many segregated input layers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-37
Number of pages7
JournalActa Biologica Hungarica
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - 2004


  • Insects
  • Learning
  • Memory
  • Multimodal information
  • Neuroanatomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Environmental Science
  • Neurology


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