Multiplex Detection of Antibody Landscapes to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/Influenza/Common Human Coronaviruses Following Vaccination or Infection With SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza

Zhu Nan Li, Feng Liu, Stacie Jefferson, Lauren Horner, Paul Carney, Michael D.L. Johnson, Jennifer P. King, Emily T. Martin, Richard K. Zimmerman, Karen Wernli, Manjusha Gaglani, Mark Thompson, Brendan Flannery, James Stevens, Terrence Tumpey, Min Z. Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses continue to co-circulate, representing 2 major public health threats from respiratory infections with similar clinical presentations. SARS-CoV-2 and influenza vaccines can also now be co-administered. However, data on antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and influenza coinfection and vaccine co-administration remain limited. METHODS: We developed a 41-plex antibody immunity assay that can simultaneously characterize antibody landscapes to SARS-CoV-2/influenza/common human coronaviruses. We analyzed sera from 840 individuals (11-93 years), including sera from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-positive (n = 218) and -negative (n = 120) cases, paired sera from SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (n = 29) and infection (n = 11), and paired sera from influenza vaccination (n = 56) and RT-PCR-confirmed influenza infection (n = 158) cases. Last, we analyzed sera collected from 377 individuals who exhibited acute respiratory illness (ARI) in 2020. RESULTS: This 41-plex assay has high sensitivity and specificity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 infections. It differentiated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (antibody responses only to spike protein) from infection (antibody responses to both spike and nucleoprotein). No cross-reactive antibodies were induced to SARS-CoV-2 from influenza vaccination and infection, and vice versa, suggesting no interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza antibody responses. However, cross-reactive antibodies were detected between spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and common human coronaviruses that were removed by serum adsorption. Among 377 individuals who exhibited ARI in 2020, 129 were influenza positive; none had serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2/influenza coinfections. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex detection of antibody landscapes can provide in-depth analysis of the antibody protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in the context of other respiratory viruses, including influenza.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S271-S284
JournalClinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Volume75
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 3 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • antibody landscape
  • common human coronaviruses
  • influenza
  • multiplex detection
  • SARS-CoV-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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