Multi-component seismic response analysis - A critical review

Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Arturo Lopez-Barraza, Alfonso Lopez-Lopez, Achintya Haldar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Issues related to multi-components seismic response analysis are critically reviewed and their implications with respect to the current codified approaches are studied. The issues specifically addressed are: (1) the directions of earthquake forces to excite a structure when the direction of the potential epicenter is known; (2) different commonly used combination rules to obtain the critical response when responses are available in different directions; and (3) the applicability of the combination rules for elastic and inelastic analyses. Based on an extensive parametric study consisting of three-dimensional 1-, 3-, 8-, and 15- story buildings made of moment-resisting steel frames and 20 recorded earthquakes, it is observed that the principal components produce larger responses than the normal components. The 30% and SSRS rules generally underestimate the axial loads in columns. The 30% combination rule is slightly better than the SSRS rule. For both rules, the uncertainty in the estimation of the axial loads in terms of COV is very large (about 25%). The statistics obtained for axial loads and total base shear indicate that the combination rules are applicable for both elastic and inelastic cases. The critical response could be obtained for an orientation different from that of the principal components. The differences are found to be slightly greater for the scaled earthquakes producing a considerable inelastic behavior. Considering the enormous amount of efforts needed to address the directionality effect, it is believed that the responses obtained by the principal components will be acceptable in most cases; however, for critical structures the components should be rotated to obtain the critical responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)779-799
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Earthquake Engineering
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2008


  • International Building Code
  • Multi-Component Seismic Inelastic Response
  • Multi-Degree of Freedom Systems
  • Principal Component and Combination Rules
  • Three-Dimensional Moment Resisting Steel Frames
  • Time History Analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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