Moving Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry toward FDA Compliance with Capacitive Decoupling Patient Protection

James R. Siegenthaler, Breanna C. Gushiken, Daniel F. Hill, Stephen L. Cowen, Michael L. Heien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Carbon-fiber microelectrodes allow for high spatial and temporal measurements of electroactive neurotransmitter measurements in vivo using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). However, common instrumentation for such measurements systems lack patient safety precautions. To add safety precautions as well as to overcome chemical and electrical noise, a two-electrode FSCV headstage was modified to introduce an active bandpass filter on the electrode side of the measurement amplifier. This modification reduced the measured noise and ac-coupled the voltammetric measurement and moved it from a classical direct current response measurement. ac-coupling not only reduces the measured noise, but also moves FSCV toward compliance with IEC-60601-1, enabling future human trials. Here, we develop a novel ac-coupled voltammetric measurement method of electroactive neurotransmitters. Our method allows for the modeling of a system to then calculate a waveform to compensate for added impedance and capacitance for the system. We describe how first by measuring the frequency response of the system and modeling the analogue response as a digital filter we can then calculate a predicted waveform. The predicted waveform, when applied to the bandpass filter, is modulated to create a desired voltage sweep at the electrode interface. Further, we describe how this modified FSCV waveform is stable, allowing for the measurement of electroactive neurotransmitters. We later describe a 32.7% sensitivity enhancement for dopamine with this new measurement as well as maintaining a calibration curve for dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, ascorbic acid, and serotonin in vitro. We then validate dopamine in vivo with stimulated release. Our developed measurement method overcame the added capacitance that would traditionally make a voltammetric measurement impossible, and it has wider applications in electrode sensor development, allowing for measurement with capacitive systems, which previously would not have been possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1890-1899
Number of pages10
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 24 2020


  • Ac voltammetry
  • Dopamine
  • Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry
  • Fscv
  • Instrumentation
  • Neurochemistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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