Moving beyond the fished or farmed dichotomy

Dane H. Klinger, Mary Turnipseed, James L. Anderson, Frank Asche, Larry B. Crowder, Atle G. Guttormsen, Benjamin S. Halpern, Mary I. O'Connor, Raphael Sagarin, Kimberly A. Selkoe, Geoffrey G. Shester, Martin D. Smith, Peter Tyedmers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Seafood is widely considered to be either fished or farmed. In contrast to this perception, many types of seafood are produced by enterprises using a combination of techniques traditionally ascribed to either fisheries or aquaculture. Categorizing seafood as either fished or farmed obfuscates the growth potential and environmental impacts of global seafood production. To better capture seafood data, national and international record-keeping organizations should add a new hybrid category for seafood produced using both fisheries and aquaculture methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-374
Number of pages6
JournalMarine Policy
StatePublished - Mar 1 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Aquaculture
  • FAO
  • Fisheries
  • Sustainable seafood
  • Typology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • General Environmental Science
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Law


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