Monte Carlo characterization of parallelized fluorescence confocal systems imaging in turbid media

Anthony A. Tanbakuchi, Andrew R. Rouse, Arthur F. Gmitro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


We characterize and compare the axial and lateral performance of fluorescence confocal systems imaging in turbid media. The aperture configurations studied are a single pinhole, a slit, a Nipkow disk, and a linear array of pinholes. Systems with parallelized apertures are used clinically because they enable high-speed and real-time imaging. Understanding how they perform in highly scattering tissue is important. A Monte Carlo model was developed to characterize parallelized system performance in a scattering media representative of human tissues. The results indicate that a slit aperture has degraded performance, both laterally and axially. In contrast, the analysis reveals that multipinhole apertures such as a Nipkow disk or a linear pinhole array can achieve performance nearly equivalent to a single pinhole aperture. The optimal aperture spacing for the multipinhole apertures was determined for a specific tissue model. In addition to comparing aperture configurations, the effects of tissue nonradiative absorption, scattering anisotropy, and fluorophore concentration on lateral and axial performance of confocal systems were studied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number044024
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2009


  • biomedical optics
  • confocal optics
  • fluorescence
  • medical optics
  • scanning microscopy
  • scattering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering


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