Molecular analysis of Cotton leaf curl virus-Sudan reveals an evolutionary history of recombination

Ali M. Idris, Judith K. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Monopartite begomoviral DNAs (2761 bp) were cloned and sequenced from field cotton, okra, and Sida alba, from Gezira, and field okra from Shambat. Comparison of the four apparent full-length begomoviral DNAs revealed 99.3-99.5% shared nucleotide (nt) identity, indicating that they are the same viral species, hereafter, referred to as Cotton leaf curl virus-Sudan (CLCuV-SD). Host range studies revealed that the field okra isolate of CLCuV-SD was whitefly-transmissible from okra to okra, M. parviflora, and hollyhock, but not to cotton. In contrast, the cotton isolate of CLCuV-SD infected cotton and hollyhock, but not okra. The genome of CLCuV-SD encodes six open reading frames (ORFs), and was most closely related to other monopartite begomoviruses of the Eastern Hemisphere. CLCuV-SD shared highest nucleotide sequence identity (95.5%) with Okra enation virus (OkEV), but was distantly related (∼74% nt sequence identity) to begomoviruses isolated from cotton in Pakistan. While extensive genomic regions of CLCuV-SD and OkEV are highly conserved (∼99% nt identity), nt sequence identity of the V1 ORF encoding the coat protein was uncharacteristically low (87.9%), suggesting a history of recombination. An analysis conducted with Sawyer's GENECONV program support the recombination hypothesis, indicating that the V1 ORF and a small segment of the intergenic region of CLCuV-SD and OkEV were derived from other begomoviruses. As a BLAST analysis failed to identify a prospective extant source of either V1 ORF, the parental viruses serving as CP donors remain undiscovered or are extinct.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-256
Number of pages8
JournalVirus Genes
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2002


  • Begomovirus
  • Bemisia tabaci
  • Cotton virus
  • Geminiviridae
  • Malvaceae
  • Recombination
  • Whitefly-transmitted virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Virology


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