Models of reactions to changes in nonverbal immediacy

Jerold L. Hale, Judee K. Burgoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


This paper examined the similarities and differences among several models of nonverbal exchange. In that context, an experiment was conducted to test one specific explanation - the violations of expectations model. Immediacy and reward level (manipulated in terms of friend or stranger pairs) were factorially combined in dyads. A broad range of behavioral, arousal, and impression measures were taken. In general, the results of the experiment showed a dominant pattern of reciprocity to increased immediacy, especially on various evaluative measures. In contrast, compensatory responses were much less common in response to increased immediacy and when they occurred were primarily found on measures related to sensory stimulation and comfort. Although these results provided some limited support for the violations of expectations model, the same results were also consistent with some predictions from alternate models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)287-314
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Nonverbal Behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 1984

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology


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