Viscoelastic materials can be mathematically represented using integer-or order models. It has been shown in different studies that modeling a viscoelastic material usually requires an enormous number of parameters. Fractional viscoelastic models have been shown to be advantageous over integer viscoelastic models in the representation of viscoelastic materials, specifically when the system has memory or hereditary property. However, to the authors' knowledge, no study has yet been done about fractional impact models. Thus, in this paper, fractional modified Kelvin-Voigt model and fractional Maxwell model are introduced as one-dimensional fractional impact models for basic fractional viscoelastic materials. The force-displacement hysteresis curves are obtained by using the fractional Chebyshev collocation method and the gradient of impact force, penetration depth, separation depth, and the coefficient of restitution are studies. It is shown numerically that fractional viscoelastic models behave more realistic than their integer counterparts in onedimensional impact problems.