Model selection using time-delay lenses

Fulvio Melia, Jun Jie Wei, Xue Feng Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The sample of time-delay gravitational lenses appropriate for studying the geometry of the Universe continues to grow as dedicated campaigns, such as the Dark Energy Survey, the (Very Large Telescope) VLT Survey Telescope (VST) ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, complete their census of high-redshift sources. This catalogue now includes hundreds of strong lensing systems, at least 31 of which have reasonably accurate time-delay measurements. In this paper, we use them to compare the predictions of two competing Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker models: flat Lambda cold dark matter (∧CDM), characterized by two adjustable parameters (H0 and Ωm), and the Rh = ct universe (with H0 as the single free variable). Over the past decade, the latter has accounted for the data better than the standard model, most recently the emergence of well-formed galaxies discovered by JWST at cosmic dawn. Here, we show that the current sample of time-delay lenses favours Rh = ct with a likelihood of ∼84 per cent versus ∼16 per cent for the standard model. This level of accuracy will greatly improve as the ongoing surveys uncover many thousands of additional lens systems over the next several years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2528-2534
Number of pages7
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023


  • cosmology: observations
  • cosmology: theory
  • gravitational lensing: strong
  • large-scale structure of Universe

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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