Significance: Oral cancer is among the most common cancers globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Early detection is the most effective way to reduce the mortality rate. Deep learning-based cancer image classification models usually need to be hosted on a computing server. However, internet connection is unreliable for screening in low-resource settings. Aim: To develop a mobile-based dual-mode image classification method and customized Android application for point-of-care oral cancer detection. Approach: The dataset used in our study was captured among 5025 patients with our customized dual-modality mobile oral screening devices. We trained an efficient network MobileNet with focal loss and converted the model into TensorFlow Lite format. The finalized lite format model is 1/416.3 MB and ideal for smartphone platform operation. We have developed an Android smartphone application in an easy-to-use format that implements the mobile-based dual-modality image classification approach to distinguish oral potentially malignant and malignant images from normal/benign images. Results: We investigated the accuracy and running speed on a cost-effective smartphone computing platform. It takes 1/4300 ms to process one image pair with the Moto G5 Android smartphone. We tested the proposed method on a standalone dataset and achieved 81% accuracy for distinguishing normal/benign lesions from clinically suspicious lesions, using a gold standard of clinical impression based on the review of images by oral specialists. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of a mobile-based approach for oral cancer screening in low-resource settings.
- efficient deep learning
- mobile screening device
- oral cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Biomedical Engineering