The purpose of this lecture is to determine how surgical dogmas change. Clearly, change is critical for evolution of surgical technique and concept. The purpose of every academic surgeon, in addition to their teaching and research roles, is to translate basic science principles to clinical care. It is perhaps worthwhile to define dogma as "a principle, belief or idea authoritatively considered to be the absolute truth." To illustrate changing dogmas I would like to use the surgical treatment of heart failure as a model.
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