Mineralogy, petrography, bulk chemical, iodine-xenon, and oxygen-isotopic compositions of dark inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka

A. N. Krot, A. J. Brearley, A. A. Ulyanov, V. V. Biryukov, T. D. Swindle, K. Keil, D. W. Mittlefehldt, E. R.D. Scott, R. N. Clayton, T. K. Mayeda

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30 Scopus citations


We studied the petrography, mineralogy, bulk chemical, I-Xe, and O-isotopic compositions of three dark inclusions (E39, E53, and E80) in the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. They consist of chondrules, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and fine-grained matrix. Primary minerals in chondrules and CAIs are pseudomorphed to various degrees by a mixture largely composed of abundant (>95%), fine-grained (>0.2 μm) fayalitic olivine (Fa(35-42)) and minor amounts of chlorite, poorly-crystalline Si-Al-rich material, and chromite; chondrule and CAI shapes and textures are well-preserved. Secondary Ca-rich minerals (Ti-andradite, kirschsteinite, Fe-diopside) are common in chondrule pseudomorphs and matrices in E39 and E80. The degree of replacement increases from E53 to E39 to E80. Fayalitic olivines are heavily strained and contain abundant voids similar to those in incompletely dehydrated phyllosilicates in metamorphosed CM and CI chondrites. Opaque nodules in chondrules consist of Ni- and Co-rich taenite, Co-rich kamacite, and wairauite; sulfides are rare; magnetite is absent. Bulk O-isotopic compositions of E39 and E53 plot in the field of aqueously altered CM chondrites, close to the terrestrial fractionation line; the more heavily altered E39 is isotopically heavier than the less altered E53. The apparent I-Xe age of E53 is 5.4 Ma earlier than Bjurbole and 5.7 ± 2.0 Ma earlier than E39. The I-Xe data are consistent with the most heavily altered dark inclusion, E39 having experienced either longer or later alteration than E53. Bulk lithophile elements in E39 and E53 most closely match those of CO chondrites, except that Ca is depleted and K and As are enriched. Both inclusions are depleted in Se by factors of 3-5 compared to mean CO, CV, CR, or CK chondrites. Zinc in E39 is lower than the mean of any carbonaceous chondrite groups, but in E53 Zn is similar to the means in CO, CV, and CK chondrites. The Efremovka dark inclusions experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration, followed by low degree thermal metamorphism in an asteroidal environment. These processes resulted in preferential oxidation of Fe from opaque nodules and formation of Ni- and Co-rich metal, metasomatic alteration of primary minerals in chondrules and CAIs, and the formation of fayalitic olivine and secondary Ca-Fe-rich minerals. Based on the observed similarities of the alteration mineralization in the Efremovka and Allende dark inclusions, we infer that the latter may have experienced similar alteration processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-89
Number of pages23
JournalMeteoritics and Planetary Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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