Migration Space: Doubly Constrained Gravity Model Mapping of Relative Interstate Separation

David A. Plane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Absolute physical distances are notoriously bad measures of the relative functional distances that influence the destination choices of U.S. interstate migrants. A novel calibration procedure for doubly constrained gravity models is proposed to map functional relative interstate separations. Doubly constrained models exactly reproduce observed migrant supplies and migrant demands. Using straight-line distances, however, they poorly reproduce the observed state-to-state patterns of flow. The proposed alternative calibration procedure leaves interstate separations as model outputs rather than model inputs. Distances are chosen to replicate observed flows. These distances define a “migration space” surrounding origin and destination states.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-256
Number of pages13
JournalAnnals of the Association of American Geographers
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 1984


  • U.S. interstate migration
  • doubly constrained gravity model
  • functional separation
  • inferred distance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Earth-Surface Processes


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