Microwave Quantum Illumination with Correlation-To-Displacement Conversion

Jacopo Angeletti, Haowei Shi, Theerthagiri Lakshmanan, David Vitali, Quntao Zhuang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Entanglement is vulnerable to degradation in a noisy sensing scenario, but surprisingly, the quantum illumination protocol has demonstrated that its advantage can survive. However, designing a measurement system that realizes this advantage is challenging since the information is hidden in the weak correlation embedded in the noise at the receiver side. Recent progress in a correlation-to-displacement conversion module provides a route towards an optimal protocol for practical microwave quantum illumination. In this work, we extend the conversion module to accommodate experimental imperfections that are ubiquitous in microwave systems. To mitigate loss, we propose amplification of the return signals. In the case of ideal amplification, the entire six-decibel error-exponent advantage in target detection error can be maintained. However, in the case of noisy amplification, this advantage is reduced to three decibels. We analyze the quantum advantage under different scenarios with a Kennedy receiver in the final measurement. In the ideal case, the performance still achieves the optimal one over a fairly large range of error probability with only on-off detection. Empowered by photon-number-resolving detectors, the performance is further improved and also analyzed in terms of receiver operating characteristic curves. Our findings pave the way for the development of practical microwave quantum illumination systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number024030
JournalPhysical Review Applied
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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