Microscopic Techniques

Timberley M. Roane, Ian L. Pepper

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

10 Scopus citations


Microscopy was the initial methodology of choice for the study of microorganisms, dating back to the seventeenth century. In this chapter we provide information on all types of microscopy ranging from visible light microscopy to scanning probe microscopy. We begin with a discussion of the theory of microscopy including such key concepts as "resolution," "aberration," "magnification" and "contrast." Various kinds of visible light microscopy are described including: bright-field; dark-field; phase-contrast; differential interference contrast; and polarization microscopy. Fluorescence microscopic techniques include: fluorescence immunolabeling; flow cytometry; and confocal laser scanning. Sections on electron microscopy are also presented, covering scanning and transmission electron microcopy. The chapter concludes with coverage of scanning probe microscopy including atomic force microscopy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEnvironmental Microbiology
Subtitle of host publicationThird Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages17
ISBN (Print)9780123946263
StatePublished - 2015


  • Electron microscopy
  • Fluorescence microscopy
  • Light microscopy
  • Microscopy
  • Scanning probe microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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