Microbiota maintain colonic homeostasis by activating TLR2/MyD88/PI3K signaling in IL-10-producing regulatory B cells

Yoshiyuki Mishima, Akihiko Oka, Bo Liu, Jeremy W. Herzog, Chang Soo Eun, Ting Jia Fan, Emily Bulik-Sullivan, Ian M. Carroll, Jonathan J. Hansen, Liang Chen, Justin E. Wilson, Nancy C. Fisher, Jenny P.Y. Ting, Tomonori Nochi, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia, Christopher L. Karp, R. Balfour Sartor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Scopus citations


Resident microbiota activates regulatory cells that modulate intestinal inflammation and promote and maintain intestinal homeostasis. IL-10 is a key mediator of immune regulatory function. Our studies describe the functional importance and mechanisms by which gut microbiota and specific microbial components influence the development of intestinal IL-10-producing B cells. Using fecal transplant into germ-free (GF) Il10+/EGFP reporter and Il10-/- mice, we demonstrated that microbiota from specific pathogen-free mice primarily stimulated IL-10-producing colon-specific B cells and T regulatory 1 cells in ex-GF mice. IL-10 in turn downregulated microbiota-activated mucosal inflammatory cytokines. TLR2 and -9 ligands and enteric bacterial lysates preferentially induced IL-10 production and the regulatory capacity of intestinal B cells. Analysis of Il10+/EGFP mice crossed with additional gene-deficient strains and B cell cotransfer studies demonstrated that microbiota-induced IL-10-producing intestinal B cells ameliorated chronic T cell-mediated colitis in a TLR2-, MyD88-, and PI3K-dependent fashion. In vitro studies implicated downstream signaling of PI3Kp110δ and AKT. These studies demonstrated that resident enteric bacteria activated intestinal IL-10-producing B cells through TLR2, MyD88, and PI3K pathways. These B cells reduced colonic T cell activation and maintained mucosal homeostasis in response to intestinal microbiota.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3702-3716
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 3 2019
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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