Mechanism matters: mortality and endothelial cell damage marker differences between blunt and penetrating traumatic injuries across three prehospital clinical trials

Jack K. Donohue, Danielle S. Gruen, Nidhi Iyanna, John M. Lorence, Joshua B. Brown, Francis X. Guyette, Brian J. Daley, Brian J. Eastridge, Richard S. Miller, Raminder Nirula, Brian G. Harbrecht, Jeffrey A. Claridge, Herb A. Phelan, Gary A. Vercruysse, Terence O’Keeffe, Bellal Joseph, Matthew D. Neal, Timothy R. Billiar, Jason L. Sperry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Injury mechanism is an important consideration when conducting clinical trials in trauma. Mechanisms of injury may be associated with differences in mortality risk and immune response to injury, impacting the potential success of the trial. We sought to characterize clinical and endothelial cell damage marker differences across blunt and penetrating injured patients enrolled in three large, prehospital randomized trials which focused on hemorrhagic shock. In this secondary analysis, patients with systolic blood pressure < 70 or systolic blood pressure < 90 and heart rate > 108 were included. In addition, patients with both blunt and penetrating injuries were excluded. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Mortality was characterized using Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional-hazards models. Generalized linear models were used to compare biomarkers. Chi squared tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum were used to compare secondary outcomes. We characterized data of 696 enrolled patients that met all secondary analysis inclusion criteria. Blunt injured patients had significantly greater 24-h (18.6% vs. 10.7%, log rank p = 0.048) and 30-day mortality rates (29.7% vs. 14.0%, log rank p = 0.001) relative to penetrating injured patients with a different time course. After adjusting for confounders, blunt mechanism of injury was independently predictive of mortality at 30-days (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.06–3.20, p = 0.029), but not 24-h (HR 1.65, 95% CI 0.86–3.18, p = 0.133). Elevated admission levels of endothelial cell damage markers, VEGF, syndecan-1, TM, S100A10, suPAR and HcDNA were associated with blunt mechanism of injury. Although there was no difference in multiple organ failure (MOF) rates across injury mechanism (48.4% vs. 42.98%, p = 0.275), blunt injured patients had higher Denver MOF score (p < 0.01). The significant increase in 30-day mortality and endothelial cell damage markers in blunt injury relative to penetrating injured patients highlights the importance of considering mechanism of injury within the inclusion and exclusion criteria of future clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2747
JournalScientific reports
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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