Measurement of refractive error in native american preschoolers: Validity and reproducibility of autorefraction

Erin M. Harvey, Joseph M. Miller, Velma Dobson, Robert Tyszko, Amy L. Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


Purpose: To examine (1) reproducibility of cycloplegic retinoscopy (C- RNS), cycloplegic autorefraction (C-Autoref), and noncycloplegic autorefraction (NC-Autoref), and (2) validity of C-Autoref and NC-Autoref compared with C-RNS in preschoolers with astigmatism. Methods: Subjects were 36 Native American preschoolers. Three measurements of right eye refractive error were obtained with each of three methods: C-RNS (by three different retinoscopists), C-Autoref, and NC-Autoref (Nikon Retinomax K+). Vector methods (vector dioptric distance, VDD) were used in the analyses. Results: Mean reproducibility was 0.41 D (SD = 0.18) for C-RNS, 0.25 D (SD = 0.17) for C-Autoref, and 0.37 D (SD = 0.21) for NC-Autoref. Mean agreement between C- Autoref and C-RNS ranged from 0.51 to 0.61 VDD (SD = 0.24 to 0.35), and ranged from 1.66 to 1.74 VDD (SD = 1.11 to 1.25) for agreement between NC- Autoref and C-RNS. Mean bias was -0.07 +0.21 x 149 and -1.33 +0.34 x 178 for C-Autoref and NC-Autoref, respectively. Conclusions: C-Autoref provided reliable and valid measurements of refractive error in young children. NC- Autoref measurements were reliable within subjects, but there was large variability in validity among subjects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)140-149
Number of pages10
JournalOptometry and Vision Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2000


  • Astigmatism
  • Autorefraction
  • Children
  • Native americans
  • Retinoscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry


Dive into the research topics of 'Measurement of refractive error in native american preschoolers: Validity and reproducibility of autorefraction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this