Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression is Enhanced by Ischemia and Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Induces Hemorrhage, Disability and Mortality in Experimental Stroke

Sofiyan Saleem, Dong Wang, Tieqiang Zhao, Ryan D. Sullivan, Guy L. Reed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) degrades collagen and other cellular matrix proteins. After acute ischemic stroke, increased MMP-9 levels are correlated with hemorrhage, lack of reperfusion and stroke severity. Nevertheless, definitive data that MMP-9 itself causes poor outcomes in ischemic stroke are limited. In a model of experimental ischemic stroke with reperfusion, we examined whether ischemia and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) therapy affected MMP-9 expression, and we used specific inhibitors to test if MMP-9 affects brain injury and recovery. After stroke, MMP-9 expression increased significantly in the ischemic vs. non-ischemic hemisphere of the brain (p < 0.001). MMP-9 expression in the ischemic, but not the non-ischemic hemisphere, was further increased by r-tPA treatment (p < 0.001). To determine whether MMP-9 expression contributed to stroke outcomes after r-tPA treatment, we tested three different antibody MMP-9 inhibitors. When compared to treatment with r-tPA and saline, treatment with r-tPA and MMP-9 antibody inhibitors significantly reduced brain hemorrhage by 11.3 to 38.6-fold (p < 0.01), brain swelling by 2.8 to 4.3-fold (p < 0.001) and brain infarction by 2.5 to 3.9-fold (p < 0.0001). Similarly, when compared to treatment with r-tPA and saline, treatment with r-tPA and an MMP-9 antibody inhibitor significantly improved neurobehavioral outcomes (p < 0.001), decreased weight loss (p < 0.001) and prolonged survival (p < 0.01). In summary, both prolonged ischemia and r-tPA selectively enhanced MMP-9 expression in the ischemic hemisphere. When administered with r-tPA, specific MMP-9 inhibitors markedly reduced brain hemorrhage, swelling, infarction, disability and death, which suggests that blocking the deleterious effects of MMP-9 may improve outcomes after ischemic stroke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)120-129
Number of pages10
JournalNeuroscience
Volume460
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2021

Keywords

  • intracerebral hemorrhage
  • metalloproteinases
  • middle cerebral artery occlusion
  • recombinant-tissue plasminogen activator
  • stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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