We present a velocity-dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg2 of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion (σν) and 16 X-ray YX measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate themass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. Ourmethod accounts for cluster selection, cosmological sensitivity, and uncertainties in the mass calibrators. The calibrations using σνand YX are consistent at the 0.6σ level, with the σν calibration preferring ∼16% higher masses. We use the full SPTCL data set (SZ clusters+σν+YX) to measure σ8 (Ωm/0.27)0.3 = 0.809 ± 0.036 within a flat ΛCDM model. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming that the sum of the neutrino masses is Σ mν = 0.06 eV, we find the data sets to be consistent at the 1.0σ level for WMAP9 and 1.5σ for Planck+WP. Allowing for larger Σmν further reconciles the results. When we combine the SPTCL and Planck+WP data sets with information from baryon acoustic oscillations and Type Ia supernovae, the preferred cluster masses are 1.9σ higher than the YX calibration and 0.8σ higher than the σνcalibration. Given the scale of these shifts (∼44% and ∼23% in mass, respectively), we execute a goodness-of-fit test; it reveals no tension, indicating that the best-fit model provides an adequate description of the data. Using the multi-probe data set, we measure Ωm = 0.299 ± 0.009 and σ8 = 0.829 ± 0.011. Within a νCDM model we find Σmν = 0.148 ± 0.081 eV. We present a consistency test of the cosmic growth rate using SPT clusters. Allowing both the growth index γ and the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w to vary, we find γ = 0.73 ± 0.28 and w = -1.007 ± 0.065, demonstrating that the expansion and the growth histories are consistent with a ΛCDM universe (γ = 0.55; w = -1).
- Cosmic background radiation
- Cosmology: observations
- Galaxies: clusters: individual
- Large-scale structure of universe
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science