Making sense of G-quadruplex and i-motif functions in oncogene promoters

Tracy A. Brooks, Samantha Kendrick, Laurence Hurley

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

342 Scopus citations


The presence and biological importance of DNA secondary structures in eukaryotic promoters are becoming increasingly recognized among chemists and biologists as bioinformatics in vitro and in vivo evidence for these structures in the c-Myc, c-Kit, KRAS, PDGF-A, hTERT, Rb, RET and Hif-1 promoters accumulates. Nevertheless, the evidence remains largely circumstantial. This minireview differs from previous ones in that here we examine the diversity of G-quadruplex and i-motif structures in promoter elements and attempt to categorize the different types of arrangements in which they are found. For the c-Myc G-quadruplex and Bcl-2 i-motif, we summarize recent biological and structural studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3459-3469
Number of pages11
JournalFEBS Journal
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 2010


  • Bcl-2
  • DNA secondary structures
  • G-quadruplex
  • NM23-H2
  • c-Myc
  • gene expression
  • i-motif
  • nucleolin
  • promoter
  • supercoiling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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