Machine Learning Methods-Based Modeling and Optimization of 3-D-Printed Dielectrics Around Monopole Antenna

Yashika Sharma, Xi Chen, Junqiang Wu, Qiang Zhou, Hao Helen Zhang, Hao Xin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


In this article, we propose using new machine learning (ML)-based optimization methods as an alternative to traditional optimization methods, for complex antenna designs. This is an efficient methodology to tackle computational challenges, as it is capable of handling a large number of design parameters and is more efficient as well as informative. The proposed technique is applied for modeling the gain performance in the principal plane of a monopole antenna when its radiation properties are modified by placing spatially dependent dielectric material around it. Using the proposed methodology, the dielectric constant values are mapped to the gain pattern of the design. We use two ML techniques for this purpose, namely Gaussian process (GP) regression and artificial neural network (ANN). Once each of these models is obtained, they are further used for estimating the dielectric constant values that can suggest optimal directions to modify gain patterns for single-beam and multiple-beam patterns rather than the conventional omnidirectional pattern of a monopole antenna. The performance of this technique is compared with heuristic optimization techniques, such as genetic algorithms (GAs). The proposed method proves to be quite accurate in spite of being a high-dimensional nonlinear problem. A prototype of a monopole design with three-beam gain pattern is fabricated and tested. The measurement results agree well with the simulation results. The proposed methodology can provide useful and scalable optimization tools for computationally intensive antenna design problems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4997-5006
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022


  • 3-D printing
  • Gaussian process (GP)
  • antenna radiation patterns
  • optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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