Low-power approaches for parallel free-space photonic interconnects

Richard F. Carson, Michael L. Lovejoy, Kevin L. Lear, Mial E. Warren, Pamela K. Seigal, David C. Craft, Sean P. Kilcoyne, Gary Anthony Patrizi, Olga Blum-Spahn

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Future advances in the application of photonic interconnects will involve the insertion of parallel-channel links into Multi-Chip Modules (MCMs) and board-level parallel connections. Such applications will drive photonic link components into more compact forms that consume far less power than traditional telecommunication data links. These will make use of new device-level technologies such as vertical cavity surfaceemitting lasers and special low-power parallel photoreceiver circuits. Depending on the application, these device technologies will often be monolithically integrated to reduce the amount of board or module real estate required by the photonics. Highly parallel MCM and board-level applications will also require simplified drive circuitry, lower cost, and higher reliability than has been demonstrated in photonic and optoelectronic technologies. An example is found in two-dimensional point-to-point array interconnects for MCM stacking. These interconnects are based on high-efficiency Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs), Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) photoreceivers, integrated micro-optics, and MCM-compatible packaging techniques. Individual channels have been demonstrated at 100 Mb/s, operating with a direct 3.3V CMOS electronic interface while using 45 mW of electrical power. These results demonstrate how optoelectronic device technologies can be optimized for low-power parallel link applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1028403
Pages (from-to)35-63
Number of pages29
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - Jan 30 1996
Externally publishedYes
EventOptoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging: A Critical Review 1996 - San Jose, United States
Duration: Jan 27 1996Feb 2 1996


  • Binary Optic Lens
  • HBT Photoreceiver
  • Interconnect
  • Microlens
  • Multi -Module
  • Packaging
  • Three -Dimensional Stacking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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