Love and Death in the Stone Age: What Constitutes First Evidence of Mortuary Treatment of the Human Body?

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27 Scopus citations


After we die, our persona may live on in the minds of the people we know well. Two essential elements of this process are mourning and acts of commemoration. These behaviors extend well beyond grief and must be cultivated deliberately by the survivors of the deceased individual. Those who are left behind have many ways of maintaining connections with their deceased, such as burials in places where the living are likely to return and visit. In this way, culturally defined places often serve as metaphors of social association and shared experience. Humans are the only kind of animal that buries their dead, and this gesture is preserved in Paleolithic sites as early as 120,000 years ago. Though not the only method of honoring the dead in human cultures, the emergence of burial traditions in the Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) implies that both Neandertals and early anatomically modern humans (AMH) had already begun to conceive of the individual as unique and irreplaceable. Claims of primitive mortuary behavior in earlier periods than the Middle Paleolithic fall short in that they lack any signs of positive social-spatial associations between the deceased and survivors. The archaeological evidence for burial behavior in the Middle Paleolithic provides the first clear translation of mourning into a stereotypical action. These burials therefore may represent the first ritualized bridge between the living and the deceased in human evolutionary history.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)248-261
Number of pages14
JournalBiological Theory
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2017


  • Commemoration
  • Early AMH (anatomically modern humans)
  • Fire technology
  • Grief
  • Human evolution
  • Mourning
  • Neandertals
  • Paleolithic burials
  • Residential camps

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • History and Philosophy of Science

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