Longitudinal parental perception of COVID-19 vaccines for children in a multi-site, cohort study

Patrick Rivers, Cynthia Porter, Lindsay B. LeClair, Zuha Jeddy, Ashley L. Fowlkes, Julie Mayo Lamberte, Katherine Herder, Madeleine Smith, Ramona Rai, Lauren Grant, Kurt T. Hegmann, Krystal Jovel, Molly Vaughan, Clare Mathenge, Andrew L. Phillips, Sana Khan, Amadea Britton, Tamara Pilishvili, Jefferey L. Burgess, Gabriella Newes-AdeyiManjusha Gaglani, Alberto Caban-Martinez, Sarang Yoon, Karen Lutrick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Pediatric COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and uptake is not well understood. Among parents of a prospective cohort of children aged 6 months–17 years, we assessed COVID-19 vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and uptake over 15 months. Methods: The PROTECT study collected sociodemographic characteristics of children at enrollment and COVID-19 vaccination data and parental KAPs quarterly. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to test the effect of KAPs on vaccine uptake; McNemar's test for paired samples was used to evaluate KAP change over time. Results: A total of 2,837 children were enrolled, with more than half (61 %) vaccinated by October 2022. Positive parental beliefs about vaccine safety and effectiveness strongly predicted vaccine uptake among children aged 5–11 years (aOR 13.1, 95 % CI 8.5–20.4 and aOR 6.4, 95 % CI 4.3–9.6, respectively) and children aged 12+ years (aOR 7.0, 95 % CI 3.8–13.0 and aOR 8.9, 95 % CI 4.4–18.0). Compared to enrollment, at follow-up parents (of vaccinated and unvaccinated children) reported higher self-assessed vaccine knowledge, but more negative beliefs towards vaccine safety, effectiveness, and trust in government. Parents unlikely to vaccinate their children at enrollment reported more positive beliefs on vaccine knowledge, safety, and effectiveness at follow-up. Conclusion: The PROTECT cohort allows for an examination of factors driving vaccine uptake and how beliefs about COVID-19 and the COVID-19 vaccines change over time. Findings of the current analysis suggest that these beliefs change over time and policies aiming to increase vaccine uptake should focus on vaccine safety and effectiveness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1512-1520
Number of pages9
Issue number7
StatePublished - Mar 7 2024


  • COVID-19
  • Children
  • Vaccine acceptance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Veterinary
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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