Long-Term prevalence and predictors of prolonged grief disorder amongst bereaved cancer caregivers: A cohort study

Rachel D. Zordan, Melanie L. Bell, Melanie Price, Cheryl Remedios, Elizabeth Lobb, Christopher Hall, Peter Hudson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Context The short-Term impact of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) following bereavement is well documented. The longer term sequelae of PGD however are poorly understood, possibly unrecognized, and may be incorrectly attributed to other mental health disorders and hence undertreated.Objectives The aims of this study were to prospectively evaluate the prevalence of PGD three years post bereavement and to examine the predictors of long-Term PGD in a population-based cohort of bereaved cancer caregivers.Methods A cohort of primary family caregivers of patients admitted to one of three palliative care services in Melbourne, Australia, participated in the study (n = 301). Sociodemographic, mental health, and bereavement-related data were collected from the caregiver upon the patient's admission to palliative care (T1). Further data addressing circumstances around the death and psychological health were collected at six (T2, n = 167), 13 (T3, n = 143), and 37 months (T4, n = 85) after bereavement.Results At T4, 5% and 14% of bereaved caregivers met criteria for PGD and subthreshold PGD, respectively. Applying the total PGD score at T4, linear regression analysis found preloss anticipatory grief measured at T1 and self-reported coping measured at T2 were highly statistically significant predictors (both p < 0.0001) of PGD in the longer term.Conclusion For almost 20% of caregivers, the symptoms of PGD appear to persist at least three years post bereavement. These findings support the importance of screening caregivers upon the patient's admission to palliative care and at six months after bereavement to ascertain their current mental health. Ideally, caregivers at risk of developing PGD can be identified and treated before PGD becomes entrenched.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)507-514
Number of pages8
JournalPalliative and Supportive Care
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019


  • Bereavement
  • Caregiver
  • Complicated grief
  • Mental health
  • Palliative care
  • Prolonged grief disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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