Long-term clinical outcomes of focal impulse and rotor modulation for treatment of atrial fibrillation: A multicenter experience

Eric Buch, Michael Share, Roderick Tung, Peyman Benharash, Parikshit Sharma, Jayanthi Koneru, Ravi Mandapati, Kenneth A. Ellenbogen, Kalyanam Shivkumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

175 Scopus citations


Background New approaches to ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) include focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM). Studies of this technology with short-term follow-up have shown favorable outcomes. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize the long-term results of FIRM ablation in a cohort of patients treated at 2 academic medical centers. Methods All FIRM-guided ablation procedures (n = 43) at UCLA Medical Center and Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center performed between January 2012 and October 2013 were included for analysis. During AF, FIRM software constructed phase maps from unipolar atrial electrograms to identify putative AF sources. These sites were targeted for ablation, along with pulmonary vein isolation in 77% of patients. Results AF was paroxysmal in 56%, and 67% had prior AF ablation. All patients had rotors identified (mean 2.6 ± 1.2 per patient, 77% in LA). Prespecified acute procedural end-point was achieved in 47% of patients (n = 20): AF termination in 4, organization in 7, >10% slowing of AF cycle length in 9. Acute complications occurred in 4 patients (9.3%). At 18 ± 7 months of follow-up, 37% were free from documented recurrent AF after a 3-month blanking period; 21% were free from documented atrial tachyarrhythmias and off antiarrhythmic drugs. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any significant predictors of AF recurrence, including pattern of AF, acute procedural success, or prior failed ablation. Conclusion Long-term clinical results after FIRM ablation in this cohort of patients showed poor efficacy, different from previously published studies. Randomized studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and clinical utility of this ablation approach for treating AF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)636-641
Number of pages6
JournalHeart Rhythm
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Arrhythmia
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Catheterablation
  • Clinicalelectro-physiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Long-term clinical outcomes of focal impulse and rotor modulation for treatment of atrial fibrillation: A multicenter experience'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this