Beagle puppies develop bronchiolar inflammation and histamine hyperresponsiveness with canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) infections. We determined the distribution of bronchiolar lesions and correlated inflammation with virions and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology. Nineteen beagle puppies were inoculated with tissue culture fluid (control puppies, n = 8), or CAV2 (CAV2, n = 11). The puppies had clinical assessments and measurements of lung resistance (RL), and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) immediately before inoculation (Day zero) and 3 days later (Day 3). The puppies were killed on Day 3, the lungs were removed, and the right intermediate lobe was lavaged. The BALF was assessed for total and differential cell counts. Bronchiolar inflammation was quantitated by bronchiolar inflammation scores (BIS). CAV2 was localized by immunofluorescent antibody staining and electron microscopy. The control puppies remained healthy. The CAV2 puppies had positive cultures for CAV2, respiratory symptoms, and generalized necrotizing bronchiolitis. Alveolar inflammation was quantitatively less prominent than bronchiolar inflammation, and RL and Cdyn were unchanged. The BALF neutrophilia correlated with the BIS. CAV2 was present within bronchiolar epithelium, alveolar epithelial type 2 cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. CAV2 was not found in airways smooth muscle or nerves, nor in any noninflamed tissues of CAV2 puppies or in control animals. Our data suggest that acute CAV2 in beagle puppies produces an inflammation of most bronchioles. Intracellular CAV2 was found in bronchiolar epithelium, macrophages, neutrophils, and alveolar epithelial type 2 cells. Bronchiolar inflammation was reflected in BALF cytology. We conclude that bronchiolar inflammation as indicated by BIS and BALF cytology is related temporally to histamine hyperresponsiveness in our beagle puppies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine