Leadership in nonformal youth groups: Does style affect youth outcomes?

Kirk A. Astroth

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Adult styles of leadership significantly affect member outcomes in 4-H clubs. While a number of previous studies have failed to find significant life skills differences between 4-H participants and non-members, the reason lies in failing to consider the style of adult leadership in research design. A year-long study of five clubs from three randomly selected counties in Montana used adult leadership style as a discriminant variable. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to triangulate results and conclusions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-34
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Extension
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1996
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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