Latinx sexual minority youth's identity development and experiences with preparation for bias

Sei Eun Kim, Russell B. Toomey, Karla Anhalt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: This study examined how preparation for ethnic and sexual orientation bias uniquely and collectively contributes to ethnic identity and sexual orientation identity development among Latinx sexual minority youth (SMY). Background: Theories indicate that parental socialization strategies are associated with youth's development, yet no studies have examined how multiple forms of socialization are uniquely and collectively associated with youth's identity development. Method: Hypotheses were tested using self-reported data from 385 Latinx SMY (M = 20.26, SD = 2.6). Results: Preparation for ethnic bias was negatively associated with ethnic identity affirmation but positively associated with ethnic identity exploration and resolution. Preparation for sexual orientation bias was negatively associated with ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation, as well as sexual orientation identity resolution and affirmation, but not exploration. Several interactions emerged between preparation for ethnic bias and sexual orientation bias predicting ethnic and sexual orientation identity. Conclusion: Findings suggest that preparation for bias related to ethnicity and sexual orientation are interconnected, rather than independently shaping ethnic and sexual orientation identities development among SMY. Implications: Additional studies are needed to understand the impacts of family socialization related to ethnicity and sexuality to optimize identity development among Latinx SMY.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)948-965
Number of pages18
JournalFamily Relations
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • Latinx
  • preparation for bias
  • sexual minority youth
  • sexual orientation identity
  • youth
  • youthethnic identity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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