Language planning considerations in indigenous communities

Richard Ruiz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Federally-funded bilingual programs for American Indian/Alaska Native students are addressesed from a language planning perspective. The discussion identifies three language policy types-endoglossic (community-oriented), exoglossic (externally-oriented), and mixed policies-and their relationship to American Indian/Alaska Native bilingual education. Federally-funded bilingual education represents an exoglossic policy for indigenous communities and as such, can lead to language loss. The recommendation here is that indigenous communities begin now to develop endoglossic policies that will reinforce past efforts in bilingual education while simultaneously stabilizing community heritage languages.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-81
Number of pages11
JournalBilingual Research Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


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