It's all B2B...and beyond: Toward a systems perspective of the market

Stephen L. Vargo, Robert F. Lusch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

929 Scopus citations


The delineation of B2B from 'mainstream' marketing reflects the limitations of the traditional, goods-dominant (G-D) model of exchange and a conceptualization of value creation based on the 'producer' versus 'consumer' divide. Service-dominant (S-D) logic broadens the perspective of exchange and value creation and implies that all social and economic actors engaged in exchange (e.g., firms, customers, etc.) are service-providing, value-creating enterprises; thus, in this sense, all exchange can be considered B2B. From this perspective, the contributions of B2B marketing (and other sub-disciplines) can be seen as applicable to 'mainstream' marketing. This generic, actor-to-actor (A2A) orientation, in turn, points toward a dynamic, networked and systems orientation to value creation. This article discusses this systems-oriented framework and elaborates the steps necessary for developing it further into a general theory of the market, informed by the marketing sub-disciplines, marketing practices, and disciplines external to marketing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-187
Number of pages7
JournalIndustrial Marketing Management
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2011


  • A2A
  • B2B
  • Co-creation
  • Service systems
  • Service-dominant logic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing


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