The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier, provides nutrients, recycles visual pigment, and removes spent discs from the photoreceptors, among many other functions. Because of these critical roles in visual homeostasis, the RPE is a principal location of disease-associated changes in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), emphasizing its importance for study in both visual health and disease. Unfortunately, there are no early indicators of AMD or disease progression, a void that could be filled by the development of early AMD biomarkers. Exosomes are lipid bilayer membrane vesicles of nanoscale sizes that are released in a controlled fashion by cells and carry out a number of extra- and intercellular activities. In the RPE they are released from both the apical and basal sides, and each source has a unique signature/content. Exosomes released from the basolateral side of RPE cells enter the systemic circulation via the choroid and thus represent a potential source of retinal disease biomarkers in blood. Here we discuss the potential of targeted immunocapture of eye-derived exosomes and other small extracellular vesicles from blood for eye disease biomarker discovery.