While the administration of antivenom to treat hemotoxic snake bite injury remains the gold standard of therapy, we have demonstrated that modifying human fibrinogen with iron and carbon monoxide renders it resistant to fibrinogenolytic snake venom enzymes. In order to translate these findings into a possible biometal-based therapy complementary to antivenom administration, a preclinical model that possesses fibrinogen that closely mimics the human molecule in response to iron and carbon monoxide needed to be identified. The goal of this investigation was to determine if a swine model could serve in this capacity by assessing the thrombelastographic response of porcine plasma to iron and carbon monoxide exposure, without or with further exposure to the fibrinogenolytic venom of the viper Crotalus atrox. Using plasma obtained from eight swine, it was determined that their plasma responded to iron and carbon monoxide in a manner similar to that of human plasma by displaying enhanced coagulation kinetics. However, in sharp contrast to the response seen with human plasma, only iron significantly protected porcine plasma coagulation kinetics from C. atrox venom degradation. Therefore the pig is an animal beyond humans that could derive benefit from the biometal-focused therapy of iron infusion to protect against venom mediated compromise of coagulation. Thus, future investigation to assess the effects of iron administration to attenuate the effects of fibrinogenolytic envenomation with a pig model is justified.
- Carbon monoxide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Metals and Alloys