Investigational peptide and peptidomimetic μ and δ opioid receptor agonists in the relief of pain

Aswini Kumar Giri, Victor J. Hruby

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Introduction: Current methods for treating prolonged and neuropathic pain are inadequate and lead to toxicities that greatly diminish quality of life. Therefore, new approaches to the treatment of pain states are needed to address these problems. Areas covered: The review primarily reviews approaches that have been taken in the peer-reviewed literature of multivalent ligands that interact with both μ and δ opioid receptors as agonists, and in some cases, also with pharmacophores for antagonist ligands that interact with other receptors as antagonists to block pain. Expert opinion: Although there are a number of drugs currently on the market for the treatment of pain; none of them are 100% successful. In the authors' opinion, it is clear that new directions and modalities are needed to better address the treatment of prolonged and neuropathic pain; one drug or class clearly is not the answer for all pain therapy. Undoubtedly, there are many different phenotypes of prolonged and neuropathic pain and this should be one avenue to further develop appropriate therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)227-241
Number of pages15
JournalExpert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2014


  • Agonist
  • Multifunctionality
  • Multivalency
  • Opioid
  • Pain
  • Receptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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