Investigation of potential zooanthroponotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis through agricultural use of reclaimed wastewater

George D. Di Giovanni, Walter Q. Betancourt, Joe Hernandez, Naomi W. Assadian, Juan P. Flores Margez, Esaul Jaramillo Lopez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

A field study in the Juarez Valley of Mexico was performed to investigate the potential transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia to sheep livestock grazing on forage irrigated with reclaimed wastewater, and the potential for disease transmission back to humans. United States Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 immunofluorescent assay (IFA) revealed high levels of pathogens in reclaimed wastewater, with 183 to >7000 Giardia cysts and 9 - 762 Cryptosporidium oocysts detected per litre. Infectious Cryptosporidium were detected in the reclaimed wastewater using the cell culture focus detection method (FDM). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed reclaimed wastewater contained the C. parvum bovine (zoonotic) genotype, human-specific C. hominis subgenotypes, and G. lamblia (syn. G. duodenalis, G. intestinalis) Assemblage A genotypes (A2 and A3). Despite high levels of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the reclaimed wastewater, these pathogens were rarely found on the forage plants, possibly due to environmental attenuation. Sheep fecal specimens were positive for only livestock-associated G. lamblia Assemblage E genotypes. Therefore, in this field study, there was no evidence of zooanthroponotic transmission of Cryptosporidium or Giardia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-418
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Health Research
Volume16
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cell culture
  • Cryptosporidium hominis
  • Cryptosporidium parvum
  • Giardia lamblia (syn. G. duodenalis, G. intestinalis)
  • Reclaimed wastewater
  • Zoonoses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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