Intranasal delivery of biologics to the central nervous system

Jeffrey J. Lochhead, Robert G. Thorne

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

659 Scopus citations


Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases is very difficult due to the blood-brain barrier's (BBB) ability to severely restrict entry of all but small, non-polar compounds. Intranasal administration is a non-invasive method of drug delivery which may bypass the BBB to allow therapeutic substances direct access to the CNS. Intranasal delivery of large molecular weight biologics such as proteins, gene vectors, and stem cells is a potentially useful strategy to treat a variety of diseases/disorders of the CNS including stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and psychiatric disorders. Here we give an overview of relevant nasal anatomy and physiology and discuss the pathways and mechanisms likely involved in drug transport from the nasal epithelium to the CNS. Finally we review both pre-clinical and clinical studies involving intranasal delivery of biologics to the CNS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)614-628
Number of pages15
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Issue number7
StatePublished - May 15 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Drug delivery
  • Gene vectors
  • Nasal passage
  • Olfactory
  • Proteins
  • Stem cells
  • Trigeminal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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