Technologic milestones have been achieved in the field of interventional endoscopy. These have resulted in improved hemostasis, more accurate cancer staging, safer and less invasive methods of removing gastric neoplasms, and endoscopic palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction via stenting. However, just as these milestones are achieved, new challenges emerge: (1) How much sedation can one use safely? (2) What is the risk of transmitting infection and how can that be prevented? (3) Can scopes be made smaller and more comfortable? (4) Can optics be improved? (5) Can endoscopic repair of gastric perforations be safely performed? In this section, we review some of these issues. First, we will provide an update on the most recent concepts in the field of light sedation and infection control. Then, a review of the most commonly used interventional endoscopy procedures, including hemostasis, endosonography, endoscopic mucosal resection, stenting, and percutaneous gastrostomy tube placements. Finally, an overview of the ongoing research and development in the field of interventional endoscopy and how it can improve patient comfort, diagnostic accuracy, therapeutic efficacy, and training in the future.
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