Intersectional Differences in Protective School Assets by Sexuality, Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

Robert W.S. Coulter, Taylor Paglisotti, Gerald Montano, Kaitlin Bodnar, Melina Bersamin, Stephen T. Russell, Ashley V. Hill, Christina Mair, Elizabeth Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: School assets—such as connectedness, caring relationships with adults, high behavioral expectations from adults, and meaningful participation—are associated with positive outcomes for adolescents. However, little is known about how school assets differ among adolescents with intersecting marginalized identities. Methods: We used the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey (N = 320,462 students) to examine differences in school assets with respect to sexuality, gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status using adjusted multilevel linear regression models. Results: Sexual minority, gender minority, racial/ethnic minority, and low socioeconomic status adolescents had significantly lower protective school assets. For all outcomes, the differences between sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents were more pronounced among nontransgender girls than nontransgender boys; however, these differences were not consistently present among racial/ethnic minority students. For school connectedness and meaningful participation, differences for racial/ethnic minorities versus white adolescents were more pronounced among nontransgender girls than nontransgender boys. Differences between transgender adolescents and nontransgender boys were more pronounced for white adolescents compared to some other racial/ethnic minority students. Overall, adolescents with certain multiple marginalized identities had lower school assets. Conclusions: Interventions are needed to strengthen school assets among marginalized students, thereby helping mitigate health and education inequities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)318-330
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of School Health
Volume91
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Keywords

  • racial/ethnic minority
  • school connectedness
  • school protective assets
  • sexual and gender minority
  • socioeconomic status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Philosophy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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