Interpretation of external fields as temperature

Berndt Müller, Walter Greiner, Johann Rafelski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


We show that average excitation of the vacuum state in the presence of an external electric field can be described by an effective temperature kT = eE (2πm). We present a qualitative generalization of our result to other interactions. Some phenomenological implications concerning matter at low temperatures in strong electric fields (105 V/cm) are offered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-183
Number of pages3
JournalPhysics Letters A
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 14 1977

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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