Interdependence: Ninth and newest critical element for 4-H positive youth development

Kirk A. Astroth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


For the past 15 years, a list of eight critical elements has provided a strong foundation for articulating the positive youth development focus of 4-H programs and efforts. Now it is time to revisit this list and update the critical elements for positive youth development. Interdependence is proposed as a ninth critical element that should be included. Research is cited for the importance of this element that was not included in the original list in 1998, and a call is made for a national think tank to update the critical elements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6COM2
JournalJournal of Extension
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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