With the emergence of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies, research on traffic flow modeling and analysis will play a very important role in improving our understanding of the fundamental characteristics of traffic flow. The frontier of studies on CAV systems have examined the impacts of CAVs on freeway bottleneck capacity, and macroscopic traffic flow, CAV applications on optimization of individual vehicle trajectories, potentials of CAV in traffic signal control, and applications of CAV in network routing. For current and future research initiatives, the greatest challenge lies in the potential inconsistencies between user, operator, and manufacturer goals. Specific research needs were identified on data collection and analysis on CAV behavior and applications. This paper summarizes the presentations and discussions during the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 (AVS15) held in Ypsilanti, Michigan, on July 20–23, 2015.