Integrated pest management, Bt crops, and insecticide use: The U.S. experience

George B. Frisvold, Jeanne M. Reeves

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Bt crops have features amenable to IPM systems and their incorporation into such systems has been quite successful in some institutional settings. Widespread adoption of Bt cotton and maize in the United States has contributed to dramatic, unprecedented reductions in insecticide use. When introduced into settings with less-developed IPM systems, however, secondary pest outbreaks and field-evolved resistance have become problems. Pest resistance to Bt has yet to become a serious problem in the United States but remains a concern. A major industry response to potential resistance and grower non-compliance with resistance management regulations has been development of pyramided Bt varieties and seed mixtures. These address some immediate problems, but may take some discretion in pest management away from growers. IPM principles that recognize the biological complexities of pest management may prove essential for sustaining the benefits of Bt crops.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationExperiences with implementation, global overview
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9789400777965
ISBN (Print)9400778015, 9789400777958
StatePublished - Aug 1 2014


  • Biotechnology
  • Bt
  • Cotton
  • Genetically modified
  • IPM
  • Insecticides
  • Maize
  • Pesticides
  • Resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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