Individual- and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis

Nathan P. Podsakoff, Steven W. Whiting, Philip M. Podsakoff, Brian D. Blume

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1487 Scopus citations


Although one of the main reasons for the interest in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) is the potential consequences of these behaviors, no study has been reported that summarizes the research regarding the relationships between OCBs and their outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a meta-analytic examination of the relationships between OCBs and a variety of individual- and organizational-level outcomes. Results, based on 168 independent samples (N = 51,235 individuals), indicated that OCBs are related to a number of individual-level outcomes, including managerial ratings of employee performance, reward allocation decisions, and a variety of withdrawal-related criteria (e.g., employee turnover intentions, actual turnover, and absenteeism). In addition, OCBs were found to be related (k = 38; N = 3,611 units) to a number of organizational-level outcomes (e.g., productivity, efficiency, reduced costs, customer satisfaction, and unit-level turnover). Of interest, somewhat stronger relationships were observed between OCBs and unit-level performance measures in longitudinal studies than in cross-sectional studies, providing some evidence that OCBs are causally related to these criteria. The implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)122-141
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009


  • contextual performance
  • customer satisfaction
  • meta-analysis
  • organizational citizenship behaviors
  • withdrawal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Individual- and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this