Importance: Glaucoma can develop following cataract removal in children. Objective: To assess the cumulative incidence of glaucoma-related adverse events (defined as glaucoma or glaucoma suspect) and factors associated with risk of these adverse events in the first 5 years after lensectomy prior to 13 years of age. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used longitudinal registry data collected at enrollment and annually for 5 years from 45 institutional and 16 community sites. Participants were children aged 12 years or younger with at least 1 office visit after lensectomy from June 2012 to July 2015. Data were analyzed from February through December 2022. Exposures: Usual clinical care after lensectomy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were cumulative incidence of glaucoma-related adverse events and baseline factors associated with risk of these adverse events. Results: The study included 810 children (1049 eyes); 443 eyes of 321 children (55% female; mean [SD] age, 0.89 [1.97] years) were aphakic after lensectomy, and 606 eyes of 489 children (53% male; mean [SD] age, 5.65 [3.32] years) were pseudophakic. The 5-year cumulative incidence of glaucoma-related adverse events was 29% (95% CI, 25%-34%) in 443 eyes with aphakia and 7% (95% CI, 5%-9%) in 606 eyes with pseudophakia; 7% (95% CI, 5%-10%) of aphakic eyes and 3% (95% CI, 2%-5%) of pseudophakic eyes were diagnosed as glaucoma suspect. Among aphakic eyes, a higher risk for glaucoma-related adverse events was associated with 4 of 8 factors, including age less than 3 months (vs ≥3 months: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.88; 99% CI, 1.57-5.23), abnormal anterior segment (vs normal: aHR, 2.88; 99% CI, 1.56-5.30), intraoperative complications at time of lensectomy (vs none; aHR, 2.25; 99% CI, 1.04-4.87), and bilaterality (vs unilaterality: aHR, 1.88; 99% CI, 1.02-3.48). Neither of the 2 factors evaluated for pseudophakic eyes, laterality and anterior vitrectomy, were associated with risk of glaucoma-related adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, glaucoma-related adverse events were common after cataract surgery in children; age less than 3 months at surgery was associated with elevated risk of the adverse events in aphakic eyes. Children with pseudophakia, who were older at surgery, less frequently developed a glaucoma-related adverse event within 5 years of lensectomy. The findings suggest that ongoing monitoring for the development of glaucoma is needed after lensectomy at any age..
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