In Vivo Evaluation of Transdermal Iodide Microemulsion for Treating Iodine Deficiency Using Sprague Dawley Rats

Alaadin Alayoubi, Ryan D. Sullivan, Hao Lou, Hemlata Patel, Timothy Mandrell, Richard Helms, Hassan Almoazen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The objective of this study was to evaluate the transdermal efficiency of iodide microemulsion in treating iodine deficiency using rats as an animal model. Animals were fed either iodine-deficient diet (20 μg/kg iodide) or control diet (200 μg/kg iodide) over a 17-month period. At month 14, iodide microemulsion was applied topically in iodine-deficient group and physiological evaluations of thyroid gland functions were characterized by monitoring the thyroid hormones (T3, T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), iodide ion excretion in urine, and the overall rat body weights in both groups. Moreover, morphological evaluations of thyroid gland before and after treatment were performed by ultrasound imaging and through histological assessment. Prior to microemulsion treatment, the levels of T3, T4, and TSH in iodine-deficient group were statistically significant as compared to that in the control group. The levels of T3 and T4 increased while TSH level decreased significantly in iodine-deficient group within the first 4 weeks of treatment. After treatment, iodide concentration in urine increased significantly. There was no statistical difference in weight between the two groups. Ultrasound imaging and histological evaluations showed evidence of hyperplasia in iodine-deficient group. Topical iodide microemulsion has shown a promising potential as a novel delivery system to treat iodine deficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)618-630
Number of pages13
JournalAAPS PharmSciTech
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • deficiency
  • iodide
  • microemulsion
  • thyroid
  • transdermal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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